Tinctures are a type of herbal medicine made by soaking herbs in alcohol. This helps extract the important parts of the herb and makes the tincture strong. Tinctures can last up to two years and are used in many herbal traditions. It's important to follow the recommended dosage and never use harmful types of alcohol. 

If you can't have alcohol, you can make alcohol-reduced tinctures by evaporating the alcohol or using vinegar or glycerin instead. Tinctures are made in different strengths, called ratios, and this book uses a 1:5 ratio (1 part herb to 5 parts alcohol) unless it says otherwise.

To make a tincture, put the herb in a clean jar, cover it with alcohol, and shake it every day for 10-14 days. Then, strain the mixture through a press, discard the leftover herbs, and bottle the liquid in dark glass bottles.

The standard quantity for a tincture is 200g dried or 300g fresh herb chopped into small pieces with 1 quart (1 liter) of alcohol like vodka or rum. The standard dosage is 1 tsp (5ml) diluted in 1 tbsp plus 1 tsp (25ml) of water or fruit juice, taken 2-3 times a day. Store tinctures in dark glass bottles in a cool, dark place for up to 2 years.

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